• darkblurbg
    Holistic medicine center

    Dr med Darko Marđetko

The Human organism is a very complex biological system comprised of more than 100 trillions cells. It is estimated that approximately 300 million new cells are produced per minute. It is further estimated that in every cell 40,000 biochemical reactions take place per second. All of these reactions involve a constant flow of electrons (negative subatomic particles) and protons (positive subatomic particles). This leads to the formation of weak electrical currents. Every healthy cell has a normal membrane potential of -85 mV. This potential is necessary for life and enables the normal perpetuation of all biochemical cell reactions. If this normal cell membrane potential drops (cancer cells have a potential of -20mV to -30 mV), the cell metabolic system is disrupted. The input of nutrients and output of metabolic wastes becomes inefficient. The cell will start to degenerate and eventually the cell will die. Bioelectricity is a critical component for the human organism to function and live. This electricity involves all body tissues and can be objectively measured (i.e. ECG, EEG). In order to be able to produce and to freely conduct the electricity throughout the body (nerves, brain, blood, muscles, intercellular matrix) the organism needs to be supplied with adequate amounts of minerals. Ions (positively or negatively charged atoms or atomic groups) are conductors of electricity. The most important mineral ions are calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus and chloride. In order to conduct the electricity correctly, specific tissues and body liquids require very precise, concentrations of various minerals.

The extra-celluar matrix (interstitial or intercellular tissue, biological terrain) represents the environment of the cells. It is primarily composed of sugar biopolymers – proteoglycans and glucosaminoglycans. In this network of biopolymers, in addition to water, there are different types of proteins (collagen, elastin, fibronectin, laminin), ions fibrocites, hyaluronic acid, terminal endings of autonomic nerve system, immune cells, metabolites and catabolites. It can be said that cells are “soaked” in the matrix as islands in the sea. Through the matrix (transit route) the cells receive all nutrients necessary for life. It is the matrix that is responsible for the metabolic wastes as they are expelled from the cells, and passes into the capillaries and lymphatic system. The functionality of cells is directly dependent upon the functionality of the matrix. The matrix is responsible for major metabolic functions such as pH regulation, oxygen utilization and electrolyte balance. The information processing and psycho-neuro-hormonal feedback loops are enabled by releasing neurotransmitters in the intercellular space by terminal nerve endings. The matrix surrounds the organism and creates the unification of all cells (holographic principle). The blood plasma, the lymph and the saliva are formed from the interstitial liquid. The functioning of the matrix and consequently the functioning of the cells is strongly dependent upon the pH value of the interstitial liquid, especially the polarity of fibrocite (the most important matrix cell).

Acid-base balance is one of the crucial factors of normal body functioning and preservation of the health. Any factor which can lead to significant pH changes of the body’s ecological system (i.e. pollutions), predisposes the internal milieu to be a breeding ground for pathological microbial overgrowth. The human organism was designed to function normally within specific pH values. This is particularly important when looking at the pH of blood which ranges from 7.30–7.45. If, for any reason, the pH of blood becomes too alkaline or too acid, the human organism can be threatened.

Let me explain terms pH, acidity and alkalinity!

pH is the measure of the acidity of a solution. It is formally a measure of the activity of dissolved hydrogen ions (H+). In water solutions, hydrogen ions occur as a number of cations including hydronium ions (H3O+). For very dilute solutions, pH is defined as negative logarithm of concentration of hydrogen ions: pH = - log c(H+). The values of pH can range from 0–14. The higher the concentration of hydrogen ions, the lower the pH. A value of pH=7 represents a neutral solution (neither acid nor alkaline). All values from 0 - 7 represent acidity. All values from 7 – 14 represent alkalinity. It is very important to remember that pH is logarithmically related with a concentration of H+. For example, a pH=3 of any solution represents a concentration of H+ of 1?10-3 mol/dm3 (numerically 0.001 mol/dm3) while a pH=4 represents 1?10-4 1?10-3 mol/dm3 (0.0001 1?10-3 mol/dm3) hydrogen ions. So, the solution with pH=3 has numerically ten times more hydrogen ions then a solution with a pH=4! This helps us to understand and remember that an even slight change in pH actually represents a significant increase or decrease in the number of hydrogen ions!

One molecule of water under standard conditions (temperature of 25 oC and pressure of 1 atm) dissociates in one ion of H+ and one hydroxyl ion OH-.

From this we can postulate that the acid is every ion or molecule that functions as a proton donor (H+) or electron pair acceptor. Also, the acid is every ion or molecule that can relieve a hydrogen ion (H+) into a solution (i.e. hydrochloric acid, HCl).

The base (alkaline substance) in every ion or molecule functions as a proton acceptor (OH-) or electron pair donor. The base is also any ion or molecule which can connect itself with hydrogen ion and remove it from the solution (i.e. bicarbonate ion, HCO3-).

Acidosis can be defined as a state where a concentration of acid is predominant to concentration of bases (an accumulation of H+ ions in the body). If the acidosis is related with reduced or obstructed respiration we called it respiratory acidosis. If it is related with a metabolic disturbance it is referred to as metabolic acidosis. On the contrary, alkalosis is a state where the concentration of bases is greater than the concentration of acids (a deficiency of H+ ions in the body). Like acidosis, the alkalosis can also be referred to as respiratory (caused by hyperventilation) or metabolic.

Different tissues or liquids of the body have different pH levels. Under normal conditions, the pH of saliva should be 6.5–6.8. The pH of urine should be 6.5- 7.0. The pH of the venous blood should range from 7.30–7.35. The pH of the arterial blood should range from 7.40–7.45. Normal gastric juice has a pH 1.0–3.5. Pancreatic secretion has a pH of 8.0–8.3 etc …

These specific pH values are important in order to allow normal electrical activity of the body as well as normal enzymatic functions. All enzymes can work only under specific pH values (i.e. pepsin – a proteolitic enzyme which degrades proteins in the stomach, can work only of if the stomach secretion is very acidic!) .

It is of crucial importance for the body to be able to maintain all the pH values under the normal range and to be able to compensate for any shifts which can lead to the diminishing of normal functions. For that purpose the human body is equipped with special acid-base buffer systems. Buffer systems are solutions that resist change in hydrogen ion and the hydroxide ion concentration (and consequently pH) upon addition of small amounts of strong acid or base, or upon dilution. Buffer solutions consist of a weak acid or base and its corresponding salt. The human body has several important buffer and other systems that play important role in keeping pH value constant:

a) bicarbonate buffer

b) extracellular phosphate and ammonia buffers

c) intracellular protein buffers (glutathione, hemoglobin, methionine, taurin…)

d) carbonic salts buffer system – calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium , iron

e) hormonal buffer system- ADH (antidiuretic hormone – regulation of the water) , aldosteron ( regulation of the sodium and potassium)

f) fat buffers – LDL (low density lipoproteins) – binders acid and stores them in the fat tissue if the elimination over kidneys is compromised

g) water – dilution effect (by an addition of water, the concentration decreases) and dissolving effect; after dissociation can act as proton donor (H+) or proton acceptor(OH-)

All of these systems are used by the blood, respiratory system, lymph, tissue liquid, kidneys and bones which represent the main organs of the acid-base regulation.

During the normal metabolism of the food the organism is exposed to excess acids such as carbon dioxide (CO2), which dissolved in the water gives carbonic acid. This can easily be handled by buffer systems under normal healthy conditions. Ventilation over the respiratory tract can easily decrease the concentration of CO2 in the blood. Higher concentrations of H+ (acidity) directly stimulate the brain respiratory control center and initiate the increase of pulmonary ventilation. The respiratory system acts as quick regulator of a pH imbalance.

If the respiratory system has failed in its pH regulation, the kidneys are taking a regulatory control of pH by means of their capability to control the secretion of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. The kidney regulatory system is not quick as the respiratory regulatory system and it takes kidney regulatory system 12 to 48 hours to complete the regulation.

In clinical practice, we are often faced with the situation that the human body shows biochemical signs of a pH imbalance and a tendency towards acidic stress. This needs to be differentiated from the blood acidosis which is a serious metabolic disturbance with possible life threatening consequences. Acidic stress is mainly caused by modern life style with a great deal of stress, poor nutritional habits (white sugar, saturated fats, refined carbohydrates, hydrogenated oils, additives, and too much proteins…), over consumption of different medication, recreational drugs, alcohol, ecological pollutions, toxic emotions and thoughts etc.

Poor nutrition represents one of the most important sources of excess acid in the body. Modern lifestyle has brought us to the point where we are often faced with the fact that our digestive and metabolic systems are insufficient. Lack of the oxygen, enzymes and inadequate insulin activity lead to an incomplete oxidation of nutrients.

Incomplete oxidation of carbohydrates causes an overproduction of lactic acid. Improper oxidation of fats produces an excess of keto acids. Disturbed digestion of proteins causes the over production of nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acid. All of these factors can cause improper digestion and metabolism and are considered sources of toxicity and over acidity.

According to theories based on the works of Dr. Bechamp, Dr. Bernard, Dr. Enderlein, Dr. Wheeler, Royal Rife and others, one of the most important consequences of the body becoming overly acidic are changes in its internal milieu. This is a starting point for the development of different types of microbial infections. Based on these theories, the human body under normal conditions, lives in perfect symbiosis with nonpathogenic biological entities which are, according to different sources, called protits, mycrozymas or spermits. The acidification of the tissues and interstitial liquid leads to the pleomorphic changes of these biological entities and to the formation of highly developed microbs including bacteria and fungi. These pathogens can cause different types of diseases including cancer. Through the dark field microscopy of the live blood these pleomorhic changes and different stages of microbial growth, with their toxic consequences in the blood, can be easily seen.

When the body reaches the point of being incapable of removing extra acids, it starts to store them. The first storage is in the interstitial tissue (matrix), which leads to the deterioration of the cell’s metabolic process and intracellular respiration. Higher acidity is related with higher oxidative stress and the formation of free radicals that are considered a major cause of chronic degenerative diseases. If this situation persists, cells can become compromised, degenerate and die. In addition to the matrix, the function of the digestive system (gastric secretion, pancreatic secretion, and bile) with all of its important enzymatic actions, immune system and especially the lymphatic system with its detoxifying properties can be altered by pH imbalances. In order to compensate and maintain balance, the body needs higher amounts of buffers, especially minerals in the form of carbonic salts - Na, K, Ca, Mg - and greater expenditure of the energy. By means of combining with strong acids and forming less toxic salts – sulfates, phosphates etc., minerals are very efficient in the neutralization of acids. If the body overuses minerals for the neutralization of acids, especially calcium which is mainly stored in bones, different types of ailments can develop. Osteoporosis being one of the most prominent. Modern nutrition is lacking in minerals and antioxidants. This is the main reason why supplementation with chelated minerals and antioxidants – free radical scavengers – is absolutely recommended.

Each food after being digested and metabolized leaves its ash. These are chemical and mineral residues which can be combined with the body water and fluids and form either acids or bases. Some minerals – calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium – are alkaline. Some, like phosphorus, sulfur , chlorine or iodine, are acid. Based on this fact, some groups of food are called alkaline-forming and others acid-forming. All vegetables, seeds, sprouts and fruits are alkaline. Meat products, fish, diary, eggs, nuts and grains are acid. In order to maintain the normal pH balance, humans should consume at least 2/3 (sometimes even 3) alkaline food and 1/3 ( to 1) of acid food. Since different types of foods demand different pH conditions in order to be digested properly (i.e. carbohydrates are digested under an alkaline pH while proteins require a strong acidic pH) the principles of food combining in our meals are of great importance. The most important food combining rules are:

a) Eat fruits on an empty stomach without any other food ( at least 1 an hour before or 4 hours after the other meal)

b) Do not combine proteins and starches

c) Do not combine starches with acids

d) Avoid eating more than one type of protein during a meal

e) Combine proteins with vegetables (not with starchy vegetables such as potato and carrot)

f) Combine starches with vegetables

Proper food combining allows the body to better digest, absorb and utilize the essential nutrients. Improper food combing creates a toxic, acidic environment where metabolic waste can form.

In summary, the most important facts related with pH balance are:

a) The human organism can function only under strict levels of pH values which allow normal, electrical and biochemical processes to happen.

b) The intercellular space (matrix) has an important role as the regulator of the normal cell functioning and its own function is strongly pH dependent.

c) In order to function properly different specific tissues have different pH levels.

d) To be able to compensate for pH imbalances the human body has several buffer systems in blood, respiratory tract, kidneys, lymphatic system, intercellular tissue and bones.

e) Due to modern life style, insufficient nutrition, stress and toxicity the body has a tendency to be too acid.

f) Over acidity in the human organism can produce different type of problems (high rate of an oxidation and tissue degeneration, pleomorphic microbial development, digestive tract insufficiency, osteoporosis, depression etc.).

g) Adequate, balanced and properly combined nutrition, together with proper oxygenation, water consumption and food supplements (minerals, antioxidants, enzymes) have an important role in maintaining a healthy body internal milieu.